Friday, 01 March 2019 08:28

Dolphins call each other by name

Researchers in Florida say bottlenose dolphins come up with their own names when they are very young and use these names to communicate with one another. Bottlenose dolphins call out the specific names of loved ones when they become separated, a study finds. Bottlenose dolphins surfs the waves Bottlenose dolphins surfs the waves Other than humans, the dolphins are the only animals known to do this, according to the study, published in the latest Proceedings of the Royal Society B. The big difference with bottlenose dolphins is that these communications consist of whistles, not words. Earlier research found that bottlenose dolphins name themselves, with dolphins having a “signature whistle” that encodes other information. It would be somewhat like a human shouting, “Hey everybody! I’m an adult healthy male named George, and I mean you no harm!” The new finding is that bottlenose dolphins also say the names of certain other dolphins.z“Animals produced copies when they were separated from a close associate and this supports our belief that dolphins copy another animal’s signature whistle when they want to reunite with that specific individual,” lead author Stephanie King of the University of St. Andrews Sea Mammal Research Unit told Discovery News. King and her colleagues collected acoustic data from wild bottlenose dolphins around Sarasota Bay, Fla., from 1984 to 2009. The researchers also intensely studied four captive adult male dolphins housed at The Seas Aquarium, also in Florida. The captive males are adults that keepers named Calvin, Khyber, Malabar and Ranier. Bottlenose dolphins communicate through a series of whistles. Bottlenose dolphins communicate through a series of whistles. These bottlenose dolphins, however, as well as all of the wild ones, developed their own signature whistles that serve as names in interactions with other dolphins. “A dolphin emits its signature whistle to broadcast its identity and announce its presence, allowing animals to identify one another over large distances and for animals to recognize one another and to join up with each other,” King explained. “Dolphin whistles can be detected up to 20 km away (12.4 miles) depending on water depth and whistle frequency.” The researchers said dolphins copy the signature whistles of loved ones, such as a mother or close male buddy, when the two are apart. These “names” were never emitted in aggressive or antagonistic situations and were only directed toward loved ones. The whistle copies also always had a unique variation to them, so the dolphins weren’t merely mimicking each other. The dolphins instead were adding their own “tone of voice” via unique whistling. While researchers often hesitate to apply the “l word” -- language -- to non-human communications, bottlenose dolphins and possibly other dolphin species clearly have a very complex and sophisticated communication system. he bottlenose dolphin is probably the most widely recognized marine mammal. he bottlenose dolphin is probably the most widely recognized marine mammal. “Interestingly, captive dolphins can learn new signals and refer to objects and it may be that dolphins can use signature whistle copies to label or refer to an individual, which is a skill inherent in human language,” King said. Heidi Harley, a professor of psychology at New College of Florida, is a leading expert on cognitive processes in dolphins. She agrees with the new paper’s conclusions. Harley told Discovery News that it can be challenging to study dolphin signature whistles, since it’s difficult to identify which particular dolphin is emitting the sounds, and whether or not the sounds are just mimicked copies. Dolphin-speaker-1-640x477 “Interestingly, captive dolphins can learn new signals and refer to objects and it may be that dolphins can use signature whistle copies to label or refer to an individual, which is a skill inherent in human language,” King said. Heidi Harley, a professor of psychology at New College of Florida, is a leading expert on cognitive processes in dolphins. She agrees with the new paper’s conclusions. Harley told Discovery News that it can be challenging to study dolphin signature whistles, since it’s difficult to identify which particular dolphin is emitting the sounds, and whether or not the sounds are just mimicked copies. “This study provides evidence that copies of signature whistles include elements that differ from the whistles of the original whistler, while still maintaining the changes in frequency over time that allow a listener to identify the original whistler,” Harley said. “In addition, that signature whistle copying occurs between close associates, suggesting it is used affiliatively.” King and her team are now using sound playback experiments to see how wild, free-ranging dolphins respond to hearing a copy of their own signature whistle.

Published in Dolphins

More than 70 definitions exist for what makes a species New species of insects, worms and other creepy-crawlers are announced on a monthly basis. Similarly, just last week, two new humpback dolphin species splashed into the headlines. And in October, news broke that early humans may have included fewer species than previously thought. This forces the question: what does it take to be a distinct species?

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Name me! Australian humpback dolphins eagerly await their very own scientific name. Photo by Mendez More than 70 official species definitions exist, of which 48 are widely accepted and used by scientists. And there’s no hard rule that scientists must stick to just one definition; some apply a handful of species definitions when approaching the topic. “I personally go to my lab every day and use five species definitions to conduct research,” says Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, a molecular ecologist at Fordham University, and co-author of the new dolphin study, published in Molecular Ecology. “And I sleep just fine amidst this uncertainty.” Species definitions oftentimes do not translate from one organism to another. Dolphins may become isolated by distance and behavior that prevents them from reproducing, but in other cases–such as bacteria, which reproduce asexually–these distinguishing markers do not apply. Thus, the definition of what constitutes a species varies depending on whether scientists are studying dolphins, monkeys, insects, jellyfish, plants, fungi, bacteria, viruses or other organisms, Kolokotronis explains. And likewise, methods for investigating those species also vary. In the case of the four dolphin species, each occupy different sections of ocean around the world, including in the Atlantic off West Africa (Sousa teuszii), in the central to western Indo-Pacific (Sousa plumbea), in the eastern Indian and western Pacific (Sousa chinensis) and in northern Australia (researchers are in the process of working on a name for that one–Sousa bazinga, anyone?).

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Two members of the newly identified Australian dolphin species. Photo by Mendez et. al., Molecular Ecology While the humpback dolphins look quite similar, their genetics tells a different story. Researchers collected 235 tissue samples and 180 skulls throughout the animals’ distribution, representing the biggest dataset assembled to date for the animals. The team analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from the tissue, which revealed significant variations between those four populations. They also compared the skulls for morphological differences. Although the line between species, sub-species and populations is a blurry one, in this case, the researchers are confident that the four dolphins are divergent enough to warrant the “species” title. The mitochondrial DNA turned up genetic signatures distinct enough to signal a separate species, and likewise, differences in the dolphins skulls supported this divergence. Although the nuclear DNA provided a slightly more confounding picture, it still clearly showed differences between the four species. “We can confidently say that such strong divergence means these populations are demographically and evolutionarily isolated,” says Martin Mendez, a molecular ecologist at the American Museum of Natural History and lead author of the dolphin paper. “The key is that all the evidence–mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA and morphology–exhibited concordant patterns of distinct units,” he continues, which are “usually a must for species proposals.” The genetic data the team collected does not have enough resolution to reveal how long ago the humpback dolphins diverged, and the team has yet to examine the drivers that fueled those speciation events. But Mendez and his colleagues have found that, in some dolphin populations, environmental factors such as currents and temperature play a role in separating populations and encouraging speciation. Different behaviors can help reinforce that separation, too. Most likely, however, geographic isolation plays a significant role in this case. “For populations living a couple hundred kilometers from one another, it’s perfectly possible for them to meet,” Mendez says. “But the distance from Africa to Australia is so great, it’s difficult to imagine those populations would ever be linked.” Dolphins, Mendez and his colleagues are finding, evolve relatively quickly once isolated from parent populations. New cryptic–or hidden–species have similarly turned up in waters near South America. There may very well be other species of dolphins–or any type of animal, in fact–lurking undetected within an already-discovered species. ”This really applies to most taxa,” Mendez says. Across the board, “we’re adding many more species by looking at genetic data.” Nonetheless, pondering the speciation of humans in dolphins in light of these two findings raises lots of questions: Are we fractally subdividing genetic information and brain cavity size to group and regroup organisms, or is there vast genetic diversity in even familiar species that we’ve yet to uncover? What does it mean for a species to gain or lose members of its family tree? The world and its organisms await more research. Hermanus Online Website 

Published in Dolphins

 

 

 

 

 

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