The skeleton shapes are fossils, some of at least 40 dead whales washed ashore en masse between 6 and 9 million years ago on a beach that is now slightly inland from Northern Chille Coastline. The skeleton shapes are fossils, some of at least 40 dead whales washed ashore en masse between 6 and 9 million years ago on a beach that is now slightly inland from Nnorthern Chile's coastline.

No, it's not a sand sculpture competition. The skeleton shapes are fossils, some of at least 40 dead whales washed ashore en masse between 6 and 9 million years ago on a beach that is now slightly inland from northern Chile's coastline. They provide the earliest known example in the fossil record of mass strandings of marine mammals.

The area has the greatest density of extinct marine mammals in the world, says Nicholas Pyenson of the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington DC, who led the research. Unfortunately, much of the site now sits under the northbound lane of the Pan-American Highway.

Discovered in 2010 during excavations for the road, which links Alaska and Argentina, the fossil haul includes over 40 large baleen whales, an extinct species of sperm whale and an extinct walrus-like whale. Also found at the Cerro Ballena site – Spanish for "whale hill" – were skeletons of billfishes, seals and aquatic sloths.

Whale graveyard- researchers doing fieldwork. Whale graveyard- researchers doing fieldwork.

Researchers recorded the skeletons in situ using 3D photography (pictured above) before moving them to Chilean museums.

Pyenson and his colleagues think that the whales died at sea after consuming food contaminated with toxins from algal blooms and their bodies floated onto what was then a beach. So-called "red tides", caused by algal blooms, are also to blame for some modern mass whale strandings, says Pyenson.

There were no large land scavengers in South America at the time, so the bodies lay unmolested until sand buried them. The skeletons were found on four separate levels, suggesting this story was repeated at least four times.

Much of the site is now paved over, but the researchers are confident that the area still conceals hundreds more fossils. The University of Chile in Santiago aims to open a research station near the Cerro Ballena site to work with what's left.[youtube]http://youtu.be/qRLZ29mLdSQ[/youtube]

Skeleton of a fossil whale Skeleton of a fossil whale

Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea

Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish.

Much of the site now sits under the northbound lane of the Pan-American Highway. Much of the site now sits under the northbound lane of the Pan-American Highway.

Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities.

Published in Marine Wildlife

More than 70 definitions exist for what makes a species New species of insects, worms and other creepy-crawlers are announced on a monthly basis. Similarly, just last week, two new humpback dolphin species splashed into the headlines. And in October, news broke that early humans may have included fewer species than previously thought. This forces the question: what does it take to be a distinct species?

3_-New-species_dolphin_image_3-small1-1024x477

Name me! Australian humpback dolphins eagerly await their very own scientific name. Photo by Mendez More than 70 official species definitions exist, of which 48 are widely accepted and used by scientists. And there’s no hard rule that scientists must stick to just one definition; some apply a handful of species definitions when approaching the topic. “I personally go to my lab every day and use five species definitions to conduct research,” says Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, a molecular ecologist at Fordham University, and co-author of the new dolphin study, published in Molecular Ecology. “And I sleep just fine amidst this uncertainty.” Species definitions oftentimes do not translate from one organism to another. Dolphins may become isolated by distance and behavior that prevents them from reproducing, but in other cases–such as bacteria, which reproduce asexually–these distinguishing markers do not apply. Thus, the definition of what constitutes a species varies depending on whether scientists are studying dolphins, monkeys, insects, jellyfish, plants, fungi, bacteria, viruses or other organisms, Kolokotronis explains. And likewise, methods for investigating those species also vary. In the case of the four dolphin species, each occupy different sections of ocean around the world, including in the Atlantic off West Africa (Sousa teuszii), in the central to western Indo-Pacific (Sousa plumbea), in the eastern Indian and western Pacific (Sousa chinensis) and in northern Australia (researchers are in the process of working on a name for that one–Sousa bazinga, anyone?).

dolphin species 1

Two members of the newly identified Australian dolphin species. Photo by Mendez et. al., Molecular Ecology While the humpback dolphins look quite similar, their genetics tells a different story. Researchers collected 235 tissue samples and 180 skulls throughout the animals’ distribution, representing the biggest dataset assembled to date for the animals. The team analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from the tissue, which revealed significant variations between those four populations. They also compared the skulls for morphological differences. Although the line between species, sub-species and populations is a blurry one, in this case, the researchers are confident that the four dolphins are divergent enough to warrant the “species” title. The mitochondrial DNA turned up genetic signatures distinct enough to signal a separate species, and likewise, differences in the dolphins skulls supported this divergence. Although the nuclear DNA provided a slightly more confounding picture, it still clearly showed differences between the four species. “We can confidently say that such strong divergence means these populations are demographically and evolutionarily isolated,” says Martin Mendez, a molecular ecologist at the American Museum of Natural History and lead author of the dolphin paper. “The key is that all the evidence–mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA and morphology–exhibited concordant patterns of distinct units,” he continues, which are “usually a must for species proposals.” The genetic data the team collected does not have enough resolution to reveal how long ago the humpback dolphins diverged, and the team has yet to examine the drivers that fueled those speciation events. But Mendez and his colleagues have found that, in some dolphin populations, environmental factors such as currents and temperature play a role in separating populations and encouraging speciation. Different behaviors can help reinforce that separation, too. Most likely, however, geographic isolation plays a significant role in this case. “For populations living a couple hundred kilometers from one another, it’s perfectly possible for them to meet,” Mendez says. “But the distance from Africa to Australia is so great, it’s difficult to imagine those populations would ever be linked.” Dolphins, Mendez and his colleagues are finding, evolve relatively quickly once isolated from parent populations. New cryptic–or hidden–species have similarly turned up in waters near South America. There may very well be other species of dolphins–or any type of animal, in fact–lurking undetected within an already-discovered species. ”This really applies to most taxa,” Mendez says. Across the board, “we’re adding many more species by looking at genetic data.” Nonetheless, pondering the speciation of humans in dolphins in light of these two findings raises lots of questions: Are we fractally subdividing genetic information and brain cavity size to group and regroup organisms, or is there vast genetic diversity in even familiar species that we’ve yet to uncover? What does it mean for a species to gain or lose members of its family tree? The world and its organisms await more research. Hermanus Online Website 

Published in Dolphins

 

 

 

 

 

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