Friday, 01 March 2019 09:47

A 60-second guide to humpback whales

 

The basics of feeding and breaching behaviour explained

Why do humpbacks breach?

Both male and female humpback whales of all ages breach but only the humpback males sing. Although we do not know why they do it, the frequency, style and function may differ with season and location.

Breaching costs a lot of energy and calves appear to do it the most. Could it be that since they don’t have to search for food but feed on the very rich milk (45–60 percent fat) for at least 10 months, the nursing youngsters can play more don’t need to worry about wasting energy. Breaching could thus be a form of play that helps them to develop skills to use in later life.

Among adults, breaching is far more common in social species, such as humpbacks, that gather at their breeding grounds. This suggests that it plays a role in communication. For example, North Pacific humpbacks breach most in their southern mating areas and less frequently in their northern feeding areas. Regardless of where the behaviour occurs, it is often associated with whales joining or separating from a particular group. Another function of breaching could be to dislodge barnacles or parasites that from on the skin.

The region between the dorsal fin and fluke (tail) houses a phenomenally powerful muscle. This means that the whale is capable of breaching from just below the surface, and doesn’t need to dive deep beforehand to get a ‘running start’. (Unlike sharks)

Humpback Whale rorqual Photo: Audun Rikarsen

How do humpbacks feed?

It is thought that humpbacks find prey use their tubercles - a prominent series of bumps on the head. Each bump has a sensory hair, and it is possible that the whale uses these ‘whiskers’ to judge prey density in the water during bouts of feeding. Humpback whales are filter feeders. The upper jaw contains up to 400 baleen plates, which strain out the water to leave the food – often krill or schooling fish. The throat opening is merely the size of a football, so only small prey can be consumed. Humpbacks have 14–35 grooves, known as ventral pleats, that extend back to the navel. These allow the throat to expand massively as sea water rushes in during feeding.

Humpback Whale lobtail Photo: Audun Rikarsen

What is lob-tailing?

It is the action performed when slapping the tail hard against the water, sometimes several times in succession and may be social or defensive behaviour. The action has been seen in response to boats approaching too closely.

Have you noticed this behaviour?

A humpback whale smashes its wing-like pectoral fins against the water’s surface, often together, while the whale is lying on its back. They are largely white on the underside and a third of the animal’s total body length.

Source: WDC
Published in Marine Wildlife

Some of the bowhead whales in the icy waters off of Alaska today are over 200 years old

Drwaing of a Bowhead Whale Drawing of a Bowhead Whale

In Alaska’s North Slope, the population of bowhead whales seems to be recovering. But that’s really not the coolest part of this Alaska story. That’s right, some of the bowhead whales in the icy waters today are over 200 years old. Alaska Dispatch writes:

"Bowheads seem to be recovering from the harvest of Yankee commercial whaling from 1848 to 1915, which wiped out all but 1,000 or so animals. Because the creatures can live longer than 200 years — a fact George discovered when he found an old stone harpoon point in a whale — some of the bowheads alive today may have themselves dodged the barbed steel points of the Yankee whalers"

Herman Melville wrote Moby Dick in 1851, after a brief stint on a whaling ship. Summary:

"Finally, driven to desperation at twenty-one, Melville committed to a whaling voyage of indefinite destination and scale on board a ship called the Acushnet. This journey took him around the continent of South America, across the Pacific Ocean, and to the South Seas, where he abandoned ship with a fellow sailor in the summer of 1842, eighteen months after setting out from New York. The two men found themselves in the Marquesas Islands, where they accidentally wandered into the company of a tribe of cannibals. Lamed with a bad leg, Melville became separated from his companion and spent a month alone in the company of the natives. This experience later formed the core of his first novel, Typee: A Peep at Polynesian Life, published in 1846. An indeterminate mixture of fact and fiction, Melville’s fanciful travel narrative remained the most popular and successful of his works during his lifetime."

Thirty four years ago, scientists counted 1,200 whales. Today there are about 14,000 of the mammals out there. Bowhead whales get their name from their heads, says NOAA

The bowhead whale has a massive bow-shaped skull that is over 16.5 feet (5 m) long and about 30-40% of their total body length. This large skull allows the bowhead whale to break through thick ice with its head. The bowhead whale also has a 17-19 inch (43-50 cm) thick blubber layer, thicker than any other whale’s blubber. None of the whales in Alaska, as far as we know, are white.

Bowhead whales see huge population rebound off Alaska's North Slope

Bowhead Whales are doing a remarkable recovery Bowhead Whales are doing a remarkable recovery

Bowhead whales counted from a sea-ice perch north of Barrow are “doing beautifully,” according to Craig George with the North Slope Borough. Since 1978, George has counted bowhead whales for an eight-week stretch each year from mid-April until June. The whales, which spend their lives in arctic waters, migrate past Point Barrow during that time. Since George and his colleagues began recording whale numbers 34 years ago, their counts have increased from 1,200 animals in 1978 to 3,400 in 2011. From those numbers of whales seen, George estimates there are now 14,000 to 15,000 animals.

“It’s pretty dramatic how it’s changed,” George said.

Bowheads seem to be recovering from the harvest of Yankee commercial whaling from 1848 to 1915, which wiped out all but 1,000 or so animals. Because the creatures can live longer than 200 years — a fact George discovered when he found an old stone harpoon point in a whale — some of the bowheads alive today may have themselves dodged the barbed steel points of the Yankee whalers.

That was just one nugget of northern news presented at the fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union, a five-day gathering of more than 20,000 scientists held in early December 2012 at the Moscone Center in San Francisco. A few more:

Descending permafrost

Permafrost researcher Nikolay Shiklomanov has for 18 years shoved pointy steel probes into the ground around Barrow to determine how much of the ground thaws by the end of each summer. When he hits something hard, he knows he has reached permafrost, ground that remains frozen all year. The depth his probe penetrates at the end of summer is called the “active layer.” It represents how much soil thaws each year; beneath it is permafrost.

Though he knew air temperatures were getting warmer in Barrow, the George Washington University scientist noticed the thickness of the active layer had not changed much in 18 years of probing. That led him to look at the readings of differential global positioning systems receivers that showed him the precise elevations of his plots since 2003. He saw dramatic sinking and extrapolated. His conclusion: The ground surface of today is one foot lower than it was in 1990.

“The active layer appeared to be stable, but the permafrost table was going down,” Shiklomanov said. He added that most of Barrow is probably a foot farther from the stars than it was 20 years ago due to thawing permafrost.

Scorched North Slope

When a wildfire on the North Slope burned an area larger than Cape Cod in 2007, researchers wondered if it was the sign of a new era in which northern tundra, fueled by warmer air temperatures, burned like the boreal forest down south.

This summer, Ben Jones and other scientists targeted certain areas of northern tundra and found two other immense burn scars on the North Slope. Jones, of the U.S. Geological Survey Alaska Science Center, went out to northwestern Alaska to check out what looked like old burned areas in satellite images.

He found charcoal in both areas, which had dense shrubbery. He mapped out the apparent boundaries of the Ketik River Fire in far northwest Alaska and found it was even larger than the Anaktuvik River Fire in 2007. Dating of the charcoal at the site indicates the Ketik River Fire burned sometime between 1810 and 1920. He also mapped a fire scar from a smaller-but-still-significant 123,000-acre fire that burned around the Meade River sometime between 1880 and 1920.

Ned Rozell is a science writer at the University of Alaska Fairbanks' Geophysical Institute.

 

Published in Whales

The skeleton shapes are fossils, some of at least 40 dead whales washed ashore en masse between 6 and 9 million years ago on a beach that is now slightly inland from Northern Chille Coastline. The skeleton shapes are fossils, some of at least 40 dead whales washed ashore en masse between 6 and 9 million years ago on a beach that is now slightly inland from Nnorthern Chile's coastline.

No, it's not a sand sculpture competition. The skeleton shapes are fossils, some of at least 40 dead whales washed ashore en masse between 6 and 9 million years ago on a beach that is now slightly inland from northern Chile's coastline. They provide the earliest known example in the fossil record of mass strandings of marine mammals.

The area has the greatest density of extinct marine mammals in the world, says Nicholas Pyenson of the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington DC, who led the research. Unfortunately, much of the site now sits under the northbound lane of the Pan-American Highway.

Discovered in 2010 during excavations for the road, which links Alaska and Argentina, the fossil haul includes over 40 large baleen whales, an extinct species of sperm whale and an extinct walrus-like whale. Also found at the Cerro Ballena site – Spanish for "whale hill" – were skeletons of billfishes, seals and aquatic sloths.

Whale graveyard- researchers doing fieldwork. Whale graveyard- researchers doing fieldwork.

Researchers recorded the skeletons in situ using 3D photography (pictured above) before moving them to Chilean museums.

Pyenson and his colleagues think that the whales died at sea after consuming food contaminated with toxins from algal blooms and their bodies floated onto what was then a beach. So-called "red tides", caused by algal blooms, are also to blame for some modern mass whale strandings, says Pyenson.

There were no large land scavengers in South America at the time, so the bodies lay unmolested until sand buried them. The skeletons were found on four separate levels, suggesting this story was repeated at least four times.

Much of the site is now paved over, but the researchers are confident that the area still conceals hundreds more fossils. The University of Chile in Santiago aims to open a research station near the Cerro Ballena site to work with what's left.[youtube]http://youtu.be/qRLZ29mLdSQ[/youtube]

Skeleton of a fossil whale Skeleton of a fossil whale

Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea

Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish.

Much of the site now sits under the northbound lane of the Pan-American Highway. Much of the site now sits under the northbound lane of the Pan-American Highway.

Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities.

Published in Marine Wildlife

Narwhals are sometimes referred to as the unicorns of the sea because of the long, pointed horns that extend from their heads. Narwhals are sometimes referred to as the unicorns of the sea because of the long, pointed horns that extend from their heads.

The nerve-filled appendage helps the animals’ sense temperature and perhaps find prey and mates

Narwhals are sometimes referred to as the unicorns of the sea because of the long, pointed horns that extend from their heads. Male narwhals' tusks can grow up to nine feet long,. Male narwhals' tusks can grow up to nine feet long. They are actually modified teeth that protrude out from the corner of their mouth, rather than forehead-centred horns.

Scientists do not know what purpose the narwhal's tusk serves, exactly. They've speculated that it might be used for skewering enemy animals or for breaking through the icy Arctic waters where the animals live. One team hypothesized that the tusk serves as a sort of sensory organ, Wired describes, and recently decided to investigate that idea.

To put their hunch to the test, the researchers devised a "tusk jacket," Drake writes—a sort of plastic hoodie that fit comfortably over the narwhals' tusks but excluded the outside environment. The team changed the concentration of salt in the water that filled the tusk jacket, which acts as a proxy for temperature (more ice equals colder water with more salt, while less ice means warmer water with less salt). Wired:

He found that narwhal heart rates rose in response to high salt concentrations, presumably because these concentrations normally suggest that the sea is freezing and entrapment is possible. The animals’ heart rates dropped when the tusks were washed with fresh water, suggesting they could detect this change.

The team only tested the tusks for a response to salt but think the whales might also use their tusks for seeking out prey or finding mates. Why, what would you do with an extra long, sensitive tooth?

Published in Marine Wildlife
Friday, 01 March 2019 07:46

Counting whales from space

A new method for detecting whales using satellite imagery that’s more reliable and efficient than counting whales from ships or shore.

A team of scientists from the British Antarctic Survey have demonstrated how new satellite technology can be used to count whales, and ultimately estimate their population size.

The team used Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite imagery, alongside image processing software, to detect and count whales breeding in part of the Golfo Nuevo, Peninsula Valdes in Argentina. Whales are extremely difficult to count on a large scale. Traditional methods, such as counting from ships or land, can be costly and inefficient.

The researchers analysed a single WorldView2 satellite image of a bay where southern right whales gather to calve and mate. The image had a resolution of 4 pixels per 11 square feet (1 square meter), covered an area of 44 square miles (113 square kilometres) and picked up on a broad spectrum of colors, including light from the far blue end of the spectrum which penetrates deep into the water column.

The team first manually identified whales from the image and found 55 probable whales, 23 possible whales and 13 other underwater objects that were not whales, such as rocks. They then tested a series of automated image-processing systems. The scientists say that the best of the methods automatically located 89 percent of the probable whales that they had counted manually.

 

Whale satellite images compared with aerial photographs at the same scale (top right) Image credit: British Antarctic Surevy Whale satellite images compared with aerial photographs at the same scale (top right) Image credit: British Antarctic Survey

Southern right whales, driven to near extinction, have made a limited recovery following the end of whaling. In recent years, however, many deaths have been seen on their nursery grounds at Peninsula Valdes. Their population size is now unknown but with this sharp increase in calf mortality, estimates are needed. The enclosed bays in this region contain calm, shallow waters which increase the chance of spotting the whales from space.

Spotting Whales from Space -British Antarctic Survey 12 February 2014 Scientists have demonstrated how new satellite technology can be used to count whales, and ultimately estimate their population size. Using Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite imagery, alongside image processing software, they were able to automatically detect and count whales breeding in part of the Golfo Nuevo, Peninsula Valdes in Argentina.

The new method, published this week in the journal PLoS ONE, could revolutionise how whale population size is estimated. Marine mammals are extremely difficult to count on a large scale and traditional methods, such as counting from platforms or land, can be costly and inefficient.

Lead author Peter Fretwell from the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), which is funded by the UK’s Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), explains;

“This is a proof of concept study that proves whales can be identified and counted by satellite. Whale populations have always been difficult to assess; traditional means of counting them are localized, expensive and lack accuracy. The ability to count whales automatically, over large areas in a cost effective way will be of great benefit to conservation efforts for this and potentially other whale species.

” Previously, satellites have provided limited success in counting whales but their accuracy has improved in recent years.

The BAS team used a single WorldView2 satellite image of a bay where southern right whales gather to calve and mate. Driven to near extinction, these whales have made a limited recovery following the end of whaling. In recent years, however, many deaths have been seen on their nursery grounds at Peninsula Valdes. Their population size is now unknown but with this sharp increase in calf mortality, estimates are needed.

The enclosed bays in this region contain calm, shallow waters which increase the chance of spotting the whales from space. Three main criteria were used to identify whales: objects visible in the image should be the right size and shape; they should be in the right place (where whales would be expected to be) and there should be no (or few) other types of objects that could be mistaken as whales.

Whales in the image were manually identified and counted, finding 55 probable whales, 23 possible whales and 13 sub-surface features. Several automated methods where then tested against these numbers. A ‘thresholding’ of the Coastal Band of the WorldView2 image gave the greatest accuracy. This part of the image uses light from the far blue end of the spectrum which penetrates the water column deeper and allows us to see more whales. This technique found 89% of probable whales identified in the manual count. This is a semi automated technique that needs some user input to identify the best threshold.

Future satellite platforms will provide even high quality imagery and Worldview3 is planned to be launched this year. This will allow for greater confidence in identifying whales and differentiating mother and calf pairs. Such technological advancements may also allow scientists to apply this method to other whale species.

Published in Whales
Friday, 01 March 2019 06:55

Menopausal Moms: A Mammal Mystery

Killer whales (Orcinus orca) have something in common with humans: early menopause Killer whales (Orcinus orca) have something in common with humans: early menopause

Marine Wildlife blog salutes ocean-going mothers everywhere. Especially a 60 year-old albatross named Wisdom. She holds the seabird records for both oldest bird and oldest new mother. No stranger to motherhood, it is estimated that she has already birthed 30-35 other chicks.

A 60 year-old albatross named Wisdom. She holds the seabird records for both oldest bird and oldest new mother. A 60 year-old albatross named Wisdom. She holds the seabird records for both oldest bird and oldest new mother.

This made us wonder, why can Wisdom give birth well into her twilight years while human females call it quits 20-40 years early? And Wisdom is hardly alone - baleen whales can reproduce well into their 90s!

In fact, human females are the oddballs here and a bit of a puzzle. Evolution favors those who leave the MOST offspring. Yet the average human mother has her last child at the age of 38 -- with menopause and the loss of fertility often occurring at about 50 -- even though she will typically live well into her sixties in hunter-gatherer societies, and much longer in societies with modern medicine.

In fact, human females are the oddballs here and a bit of a puzzle. Evolution favors those who leave the MOST offspring. Yet the average human mother has her last child at the age of 38 -- with menopause and the loss of fertility often occurring at about 50 -- even though she will typically live well into her sixties in hunter-gatherer societies, and much longer in societies with modern medicine.

But we are not entirely unique. Short finned pilot whale females live until they are 54 years old but stop breeding by age 36. Killer whale females stop breeding after roughly 48 years and can then live to the ripe old age of 90. Sound familiar!? We must be on to something. But what? What makes female humans, short-finned pilot whales and killer whales throw in the towel after the 5th inning of the baby-making game?

Short finned pilot whale females live until they are 54 years old but stop breeding by age 36. Short finned pilot whale females live until they are 54 years old but stop breeding by age 36.

The “mother effect” suggests that after a female has a certain number of children, she puts them at a disadvantage by continuing to engage in the risky business of childbirth. Similarly, the “grandmother effect” suggests that older females can leave more surviving relatives by helping their children’s children than by having more of their own. But these hypotheses don’t do much to explain why humans and some whales but no other species should evolve the menopausal strategy.

Lastly, there is the “reproductive conflict hypothesis” or as we like to call it “the Father of the Bride 2 hypothesis.” This theory suggests that there are simply not enough food and resources for a mother and a daughter to simultaneously raise a baby. (As is demonstrated in the 1995 comedy classic Father of the Bride 2. When Annie Banks and her mother Nina both become pregnant at the same time, Steve Martin fears what this will mean for his financial situation and ability to get a good night’s sleep. Comedy ensues.) This theory helps to explain why a woman tends to go through menopause just as her children become ready to reproduce.

So what do people, killer whales and short-finned pilot whales have in common when it comes to reproductive conflict? We care for our young for a long time. We live in packs. And we hunt in groups. But so do lots of social mammals. The more typical pattern is for younger females to help older females rather than the reverse – we need to look deeper to find out what causes the switch.

One piece of the puzzle may lie in the fact that human females (unlike most female mammals, who tend to stay put) often leave their own families to join the families of their husbands. This means that when they first arrive, they have no relatives nearby to help and so it makes sense to focus on their own kids. But that changes as they get older and their sons start having children.

Unlike right whales, humans stop reproducing in their thirties Unlike right whales, humans stop reproducing in their thirties

Menopausal female whales find themselves in a similar situation for different reasons. In these species, both males and females stay in their groups most of the time, but they leave them to mate. This means that a female’s daughters’ offspring stay in the group, so that once again as she gets older she has more relatives to help. This may also explain why before menopause females take better care of their sons – daughters are weaned at 4-6 years but sons are cared for into their teens. This makes sense because her sons’ offspring are elsewhere and so don’t compete with her own.

Who would have thought that marine mammals might help us understand human menopause? Of course the question remains – does a life spent cooled by the ocean help menopausal whales deal with hot flashes? These are the mysteries of the ocean we may never know.

Editors Note: This post was co-written with Amanda Feuerstein, program coordinator in the office of the Sant Chair for Marine Science. Dr. Nancy Knowlton is the Sant Chair for Marine Science at Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History..”

 

Published in Marine Wildlife
Friday, 01 March 2019 06:43

How Whales Become Entangled

This illustration shows how fishing lines attached to traps and buoys on the ocean floor present a potentially deadly hazard to North Atlantic right whales. This illustration shows how fishing lines attached to traps and buoys on the ocean floor present a potentially deadly hazard to North Atlantic right whales. Freeing entangled whales involves a certain amount of knowledge and caution, and should be left to the experts.

Each year, thousands of whales and dolphins die from the gear, indicating that fisheries by-catch is a significant human-related cause of cetacean mortality. Each year, thousands of whales and dolphins die from the gear, indicating that fisheries by-catch is a significant human-related cause of cetacean mortality.

What started out as a routine day of fishing for a well-intentioned New Zealand man quickly turned to tragedy when he attempted to save an entangled humpback whale off New Zealand’s coast. As reported in a June 2003 issue of the New Zealand Herald, Tom Smith arrived on the scene after picking up reports from local fishermen of a whale in trouble. He leapt into the water and tried to cut the roped whale free. Inadvertently, the whale’s fluke came down on Smith, killing him.

For Ed Lyman, a whale rescue expert with Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary who gives workshops on the subject, the New Zealand tragedy is precisely what he wants people to avoid. “Smith’s enthusiasm to do something good ended badly,” Lyman says.

The first thing Lyman and other marine mammal rescue specialists tell people is don’t get into the water. “The desire for untrained people to act on their own can often have dangerous results,” he says. “Would-be rescuers can injure themselves and also injure a whale by using improper equipment or techniques.”

A hooked knife - sharp on the inside, but dull on the outside - is attached to the entangling gear just behind the humpback's left pectoral flipper. A hooked knife - sharp on the inside, but dull on the outside - is attached to the entangling gear just behind the humpback's left pectoral flipper.

Dr. Terri Rowles, director of NOAA Fisheries Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, the federal agency that authorizes and oversees all marine mammal rescues in the U.S., concurs with Lyman. “For both the animals’ welfare, as well as human safety, it is important that only specially permitted and trained people working under the authority of the NOAA stranding and response program cut gear and marine debris from a whale.”

Rowles emphasized that “the public should never attempt to disentangle a marine mammal, whether from a vessel or in the water, because the activity is inherently dangerous to both the animals and the people trying to save them.”

Marine mammals getting caught in fishing gear and debris is a growing problem for state and federal agencies, along with private groups dedicated to protecting these animals. Each year, thousands of whales and dolphins die from the gear, indicating that fisheries by-catch is a significant human-related cause of cetacean mortality.

David Mattila, the research and rescue coordinator for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale sanctuary, has spent the last 25 years cutting large whales free. He stressed the importance of leaving the rescue work to the specialists by highlighting some of the hi-tech equipment available to them.

View of an entangled humpback whale within the boundaries of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary. The Sanctuaries rescue team was able to cut the whale free of all gear. View of an entangled humpback whale within the boundaries of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary. The Sanctuaries rescue team was able to cut the whale free of all gear.

One of the pieces of equipment that we use to help us free these animals is transmitters,” Mattila says. “Attaching transmitters to the gear ensnaring the whale allows the rescue team the ability to track the animal until proper resources and trained personnel have been assembled, and conditions are favorable to safely cut the whale free.”

In Alaska, the sanctuary program and NOAA Fisheries’ local Protected Resources Division tagged a humpback entangled in gillnet. The transmitter allowed the team to work on the animal on two different occasions, and free it nine days later. This was the first time transmitters were used to aid in whale disentanglement efforts in Alaska.

Extensive effort has also gone into developing and testing unique and specialized cutting tools that can help remove the gear safely and without causing additional harm to the whales.

 

Published in Whales
Thursday, 28 February 2019 13:23

10 Amazing Facts About Ocean Animals

With over 72% of the Earth’s surface covered by salt water, the Earth’s oceans are home to 230,000 known species. And that’s with only 5% of the Earth’s oceans considered explored! In celebration of the vast unknown of the ocean, we present our favorite amazing facts about ocean animals: amazing-facts-ocean-animals-blue-whales

amazing-facts-ocean-animals-dolphins-sleep

amazing-facts-ocean-animals-electric-eel

amazing-facts-ocean-animals-jellyfish

amazing-facts-ocean-animals-octopus-hearts

amazing-facts-ocean-animals-oyster-gender

amazing-facts-ocean-animals-seahorses

amazing-facts-ocean-animals-shrimps-heart

amazing-facts-ocean-animals-sponges

amazing-facts-ocean-animals-turtles

Published in Marine Wildlife

 

 

 

 

 

--

For your convenience

  • Accommodation
  • Transfers
  • Car Hire
  • Golf Tours
  • Shuttle Service

For nature lovers

  • Big 5 Game Safari
  • Whale watching
  • ECO - Marine Tours
  • Shark Tours
  • Penguin & seabird

For the connoisseur

  • Wine tasting
  • Arts & culture
  • Scenic Drives
  • Cape Aghulas Tour
  • Hermanus Tour

For the adventurous

  • Shark cage diving
  • Mountain biking
  • Quad bike tours
  • Cape Town Zipline
  • Paragliding

Truck

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet.

Storage

Vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent luptatum zzril delenit augue duis dolore te feugait.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper.